Mining the gold mine of new material industry: These materials are highly dependent on imports, and in the next 10 years, the potential for domestic substitution is unlimited


As the forerunner and cornerstone of high-tech, new materials are "the mother of invention" and "industrial food", and are also a forward-looking indicator of the national scientific and technological level. At present, there is still a big gap between my country's new material industry scale, technical level, and development mechanism compared with foreign countries.

The import rate of new materials in my country is as high as 86%, and the self-sufficiency rate is only 14%;
The domestic security capacity of the chemical new material industry is only 50%;
The self-sufficiency rate of engineering plastics and special rubber with a large amount is only 30%;
High-end superalloys mainly rely on imports;
The demand for localization of the new material industry is urgent, and domestic alternative materials with technological advantages will gain access to the future market, and import substitution will remain the main logic for investment in new materials in the future. The editor conducted research and analysis on the new material industry that is urgently needed in key application fields in my country, and compiled a list of 50+ new materials that are highly dependent on imports:
Almost all of the core materials, devices and equipment in the semiconductor and display industries rely on imports. For local investors and entrepreneurs, this is a huge opportunity for Phoenix Nirvana. Data shows that the localization rate of semiconductor materials is generally low, and there is huge room for import substitution.

1. Large silicon wafer

Silicon wafer, also known as silicon wafer, is the most important basic material for manufacturing semiconductor chips, and its main raw material is monocrystalline silicon. The larger the diameter of the silicon wafer, the more integrated circuits can be engraved, and the cost of the chip is also reduced. Large-sized silicon wafers have high technical requirements, extremely low yields, and extremely high barriers to entry. The global large-scale silicon wafer market has formed an oligopolistic competition pattern.

At present, the self-produced silicon wafers in mainland China are mainly 6 inches, and the main application fields of the products are still photovoltaic and low-end discrete device manufacturing. Production is in its infancy, and only Shanghai Xinsheng and Youyan Semiconductor can produce in small quantities and rely heavily on imports. In recent years, my country has been accelerating the process of localization of large silicon wafers. Currently, there are a number of large silicon wafer projects under construction such as Shanghai Xinsheng, Jinruihong, and Zhengzhou Hejing.

▉ Competitive Landscape of Global Large Silicon Wafer Industry ▉

At present, the global suppliers of silicon wafers mainly include Shin-Etsu and SUMCO in Japan, Global Wafer in Taiwan, Silitronic in Germany and SK Siltron in South Korea, with a combined market share of more than 92%. However, the manufacturing capacity of semiconductor silicon wafers of Chinese mainland manufacturers is relatively weak, and their competitiveness in the world is insufficient.

In terms of the 12-inch silicon wafer market, the overall market competition pattern of semiconductor silicon wafers is basically the same, but the market share of the top five suppliers, Shin-Etsu, SUMCO, Universal Wafer, Silitronic and SK Siltron, is higher, reaching 98%.
As the production capacity of silicon wafers for semiconductor manufacturing continues to shift to China, the production capacity of fabs in mainland China will reach 4.1 million wafers per month in 2022. In 2020, the sales of semiconductor monocrystalline silicon wafers in mainland China is about 1.98 billion US dollars. The industry leaders are mainly LONGi and Zhonghuan. Among them, LONGi has a market share of 41%, but my country's semiconductor wafers are more than 90% dependent on foreign countries.

Monocrystalline silicon wafers have penetrated into various fields of the national economy and national defense technology. Today, more than 95% of semiconductor devices and more than 99% of integrated circuits in the electronic communication semiconductor market need to use monocrystalline silicon wafers. Throughout the development of monocrystalline silicon wafers, my country has experienced from scratch, from backwardness to continuous catch-up and then to close, and constantly achieves double breakthroughs in industry and technology.
According to IC Insight statistics, China's silicon wafer production capacity in 2018 was 2.43 million pieces per month (equivalent to 8-inch silicon wafers), and mainland China's silicon wafer production capacity accounted for 12.5% ​​of the global silicon wafer production capacity.

According to IC Insight's forecast for future capacity expansion, as semiconductor manufacturing silicon wafer capacity continues to shift to China, the capacity of fabs in mainland China will reach 4.1 million wafers per month in 2022, accounting for 17.15% of global capacity.

2. Photoresist

Photoresist is one of the key materials for micro-pattern processing in microelectronics technology. Its cost accounts for about 30% of the entire chip manufacturing process, and the time consuming accounts for about 40%-60% of the entire chip manufacturing process. It is the core of semiconductor manufacturing. process.

At present, the self-sufficiency rate of photoresist in China is only 10%, which is mainly concentrated in the PCB field with relatively low technical content. The self-sufficiency rate of g/i line photoresist for 6-inch silicon wafers is about 20%, the self-sufficiency rate for KrF photoresist for 8-inch silicon wafers is less than 5%, and there is no domestic company for ArF photoresist for 12-inch silicon wafers. Can be mass produced.
From 2016 to 2019, the global semiconductor photoresist market scale increased from US$1.5 billion to US$1.8 billion in 2019, with a compound annual growth rate of 6.3%. It is expected that the global photoresist market will reach US$2.02 billion in 2021.

At present, the global photoresist manufacturing is mainly monopolized by Japanese manufacturers such as JSR, Tokyo Yoshika, Shin-Etsu Chemical, Sumitomo Chemical, etc., especially in the field of high-resolution KrF and ArF photoresists, whose core technologies are basically developed by the United States and Japan controlled by the manufacturer. The share of Chinese local companies in the photoresist market is relatively low, and there is still a gap with foreign photoresist manufacturers. The data shows that the Tokyo Yinghua market accounts for the largest market share of 27%, the DuPont market accounts for 17%, and the JSR market accounts for 13%.

3. Polarizer

Polarizer is an optical element that can turn natural light into polarized light. It is an essential component for the manufacture of liquid crystal displays. It is mainly composed of PVA film, TAC film, pressure sensitive adhesive, release film and protective film. The core raw materials of polarizers are PVA film and TAC film. The core film material PVA is responsible for the polarizing effect, and the TAC film supports and protects the extended PVA film. The two account for about 60% to 70% of the total cost. At present, the main suppliers of the two membrane materials are Japanese and Korean companies.
Due to the high technical threshold of polarizers, the market concentration is also very high. At present, it is mainly monopolized by several major manufacturers such as LG Chem, Sumitomo Chemical, Nitto Denko, and Samsung SDI. However, with the continuous accumulation of technology in emerging markets, the market share of Japanese and Korean manufacturers has decreased, and the localization trend is obvious.

With the rise of a group of panel manufacturers represented by BOE, CSOT, Tianma, CLP Panda, etc., the mainland's flat panel display industry chain has developed rapidly, thereby driving the development of the polarizer industry. In order to cooperate with localized production, foreign polarizer companies have successively built polarizer production bases in mainland China, and local polarizer manufacturers are also ushering in important industry opportunities.

According to statistics from OFweek Industry Research Institute's "Global Polarizer Market Research and Trend Forecast Report", in 2017, the global polarizer market size was 11.83 billion US dollars, a year-on-year increase of 4.3% compared to 2016. Based on the reduction in the average adoption of polarizers by AMOLED in the future and the increase in the area of ​​polarizers used by large-size LCDs, it is expected that the overall global polarizer market will maintain a relatively moderate and stable growth trend in the future. reached USD 13.25 billion, with a CAGR of 3.4% during 2015-2020.

4. OLED light-emitting materials

OLED materials mainly include two parts: light-emitting materials and basic materials. OLED light-emitting materials mainly include red light host/guest materials, green light host/guest materials, blue light host/guest materials, etc., which are the basis for OLED display technology to achieve self-luminescence. At present, the most core luminescent materials in OLED luminescent materials have high patent barriers and are mainly controlled by Korean, Japanese, German and American companies. Domestic companies are mainly engaged in the production of OLED intermediates and crude monomers.

5. Fine metal mask

Fine Metal Mask (FMM for short) is a consumable core component in the OLED evaporation process. The main material is metal or metal + resin. Its main function is to deposit RGB organic substances and form pixels in the OLED production process, deposit organic substances accurately and finely where needed, and improve resolution and yield.
If you need to manufacture high-precision FMM, you need a more advanced INVAR alloy (Super INVAR alloy). Hitachi Metals is the only manufacturer of Super INVAR alloys on the market that can meet the requirements for FMM use. At present, domestic FMM materials are in the initial research and development stage and do not have the conditions for mass production.

6. Wet electronic chemicals

Various electronic chemical materials used in the optoelectronic wet process (mainly including wet etching and wet cleaning) are the key basic chemical materials in the integrated circuit process. Different specifications of ultra-clean and high-purity reagents must be used for etching and cleaning in the manufacturing process of integrated circuits with different line widths. The key production technologies include mixing technology, separation technology, purification technology, and analysis and inspection technology, environmental treatment supporting its production. and monitoring technology, packaging technology, etc. In terms of semiconductor wet chemical suppliers, the market share is mainly in the hands of companies in Europe, America, Japan, South Korea and other countries, and the high-end product market relies on imports.

In terms of semiconductor wet chemical suppliers, the market share is mainly in the hands of companies in Europe, America, Japan, South Korea and other countries, including BASF in Germany, Ashland Chemical in the United States, Arch Chemical in the United States, Kanto Chemical in Japan, Mitsubishi Chemical, Kyoto Chemical, Sumitomo Chemical , Wako Pure Pharmaceutical Industry, Taiwan Xinlin Technology, South Korea Dongyou Fine Chemicals, etc. The above companies account for more than 85% of the global market share.
There is still a big gap between the field of wet electronic chemicals and foreign countries, and the high-end market is mainly concentrated in the hands of a few large manufacturers such as the United States, Japan, and Europe. The market share only reaches

Seven, electronic special gas

Electronic gas refers to the special gas used in the production of semiconductors and related electronic products. It is widely used in the fields of national defense and military, aerospace, new solar cells, electronic products, etc. It is one of the core key raw materials of the electronic industrial system. Market access conditions high. The technical barriers of its industry lie in the stages from production to separation and purification, as well as transportation and supply, which have been blocked by developed countries in Europe and the United States. The electronic special gas industry has a high concentration, and the US electronic special gas industry has a high concentration. Five companies: American Gas Chemicals, American Praxair, French Air Liquide, Japan's Dayo Nippon Acid Co., Ltd. and Germany's Linde Group monopolize global special gases91 % market share. Domestic enterprises are mainly concentrated in the low-end market.

8. High-purity sputtering target

The ions generated by the ion source are used to bombard the solid surface, so that the atoms on the solid surface leave the solid and are deposited on the surface of the substrate. The bombarded solid is called the sputtering target, which is a key material in the manufacturing process of integrated circuits. According to the application field, it is divided into Semiconductor targets, panel targets, photovoltaic targets, etc. The high-purity sputtering target manufacturing process has a high technical threshold and large equipment investment. The number of enterprises in each link of the sputtering target industry chain presents a pyramid-shaped distribution. The semiconductor sputtering target industry is highly concentrated, and the top five manufacturers account for more than 80%. The number of enterprises with large-scale production capacity is relatively small, mainly distributed in the United States, Japan and other countries and regions.

9. Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) Materials
Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) is a key process to achieve uniform global planarization of wafers in the integrated circuit manufacturing process. Highly (nanoscale) flattening effect on circular surfaces. Polishing materials are indispensable consumables in the CMP process, with high technical barriers and long customer certification time, and have always been in an oligopoly pattern. According to different functions, polishing materials can be divided into polishing pads, polishing liquids, conditioners, and cleaning agents, mainly polishing liquids and polishing pads. The global chip polishing liquid market is mainly monopolized by companies in the United States, Japan and South Korea. The global CMP polishing pad is almost monopolized by Dow, occupying 80% of the market.

The global chip polishing liquid market is mainly monopolized by the United States, Japan, South Korea and other companies, accounting for more than 90% of the global high-end market share. For CMP pads, DowDuPont has a 79% market share.

In terms of polishing liquids, China has basically achieved localization of polishing liquids in low-end fields such as stainless steel, aluminum, and tungsten. Anji Microelectronics took the lead in breaking the foreign monopoly in high-quality polishing liquid technology and entered the field of wafer polishing liquid. In terms of polishing pads, Chinese companies are almost blank in the high-end polishing pad market. In recent years, Dinglong has gradually made breakthroughs.

10. Silicon carbide single crystal
The silicon carbide power semiconductor industry chain mainly includes single crystal materials, epitaxial materials, devices, modules and applications. Silicon carbide single crystal is the foundation of silicon carbide power semiconductor technology and industry. High quality and large size silicon carbide single crystal material is the primary problem to be solved in the development of silicon carbide technology. fault, layer fault, etc.) is its key development direction.
Silicon carbide single crystal materials mainly include conductive substrates and semi-insulating substrates. They are the materials with the highest technological maturity of the third-generation semiconductor materials, and are currently basically monopolized by foreign companies.

High-conductivity substrate material is the base material for manufacturing silicon carbide power semiconductor devices. The semi-insulating substrate has high resistance and can withstand higher frequencies, so it has a broad application space in 5G communication and the new generation of intelligent interconnection and sensing devices.
Major domestic SiC single crystal substrate material companies and R&D institutions already have mature 4-inch zero-microtube SiC single crystal products, and have developed 6-inch single crystal samples, but in terms of crystal material quality and industrialization capabilities There is a certain gap from the international advanced level.

At present, a new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation is poised to take off, and the competition pattern of the global new material industry is undergoing major adjustments. The next five years will be a critical period for industrial restructuring and transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry.

Key words:

Domestic,Material,Semiconductor,Silicon wafer,Global

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